Active Choice

We often avoid decisions if we're not required to make them.
Requiring users to make a choice can increase the chance that they'll consider the options more carefully.

New York State Driver's License Form
active choice new york drivers license opt out
United Airlines
united airlines opt out active choice

Consistency & Self-Identity

We like to act in a manner consistent with our identity.
Reminding users of their identity, whether in the past, present, or future, can can increase the likelihood of action.

Wikipedia
Wikipedia donation consistency email
Yale
yale consistency email
Betterment
betterment future selves identity effect
Runkeeper
runkeeper consistency effect
Jawbone
Jawbone consistency example nudge

Contextual Alerts & Hot Triggers

We need context to justify an action.
Providing users with context in an alert will increase the likelihood of action.

Mint
Mint contextual alert
Rise

Rise enhanced reminders

Booking.com

booking.com contextual alert

Galley (meal delivery)

galley contextual alert

Jawbone

Jawbone contextual alert

United Airlines
united airways contextual alert

Amazon

Amazon contextual alert

SFO Road Crossing
SFO hot trigger crossing road make eye contract with the driver before crossing

Defaults

We're all a little bit lazy.
Providing users with a default can prompt them to stick with your recommended choice and encourages them to act.

Default prepopulation

Facebook
default text Facebook
Yelp
yelp default bias example
LinkedIn

Message automatically populated by LinkedIn chat function

LinkedIn default bias prepopulation example


Goal Acceleration (Gradient)

As we get closer to achieving a goal, we invest more in trying to achieve it.
Making users feel like they're far along will encourage them to act.

Bank of America
This is the first page during the mobile check deposit process. The app makes you feel like you've already on the 2nd step... before you've actually done anything.
bank of america goal gradient

Information Gaps

We don't like gaps between what informations exists and what we know.
Prompting users with the existence of knowledge that they want to know can drive behavior to close the gap.

Facebook
Facebook information gap example
Mint
information gap Mint.com example
Airbnb
Email to prompt users to write a review after their host has reviewed them
airbnb information gap email example

Loss Aversion

We act to avoid losses more quickly than we act to achieve gains. Framing a gain as a loss can spur action.

Jawbone
Jawbone loss aversion example
Amazon
Amazon loss aversion example
Delta
delta loss aversion example
Booking.com
Several effects at play here, but the loss aversion frame is strongest
booking.com loss aversion example
Uber
Uber loss aversion example
Amazon
Amazon loss aversion example
Verizon
verizon loss aversion marketing

Precommitments

We like to keep our commitments.
Asking users to make commitments can increase the likelihood of action.

Jawbone

jawbone precommitment effect example
jawbone precommitment effect example
jawbone precommitment effect example

OpenTable
OpenTable precommitment technique


Social Norms

We seek cues from others.
Showing users what their peers do can make them more likely to act.

Jawbone

social norm
social norm Jawbone example
Jawbone social pressure example

Amazon
Amazon social pressure effect
Headspace
Headspace social pressure effect

 

TripAdvisor

tripadvisor social pressure example

Basecamp

basecamp social norm example

Geico

geico insurance social norm example

Rise
Rise nutrition coaching social proof example
Runkeeper

runkeeper social pressure example

 

Expedia

Expedia social norm bias

 

Opower

social norm example opower

Amazon
Amazon social norm example
Unknown
social pressure bias
Booking.com

booking.com social norm pressure example

Meetup
meetup social norm
New York State Taxes
tax social pressure example
23andMe
23andMe social norms

23andme social norm